Visual, DEVELOPMENTAL & EDUCATIONAL Services for your entire family



How would I know if my nonverbal child needs a vision evaluation?

                                                                                        -Larah Alami, OD FAAO

                                                                                                                   One of the easiest and most immediate changes that can be seen                                                                                                            with ambient prism lenses is watching toe-walking children suddenly                                                                                                              demonstrate an instinctive ability to walk flat–footed.  Doctors and                                                                                                                  parents alike notice a big difference just by watching the child walking                                                                                                            throughout the testing area.  We have many success stories of                                                                                                                            improvements in all sorts of areas such as toe-walking, stimming,                                                                                                                       grazing the walls, tantrums, increased expressive language, reading                                 comprehension, and much more!

What are some of the most common visual problems in autistic spectrum populations? 

A large number of spectrum children have a developmental history of delays in spatial orientation and spatial organization.  Spatial orientation disorders are delays in processing information concerning posture, balance, and bodily movements. A child with such delays in orientation will often overcompensate with excessive body movements to know ‘where’ they are in space. This causes them to over focus on self, interfering with information processing of spatial information, which can result in anxiety and reduced processing skills and time.

 Spatial organization, however, is one’s ability to organize information between self and their environment; this includes objects related to other objects and space and to self simultaneously. 

As a result of spatial organization deficits, we frequently see issues with the eyes working together or focusing appropriately. Deficient binocular skills very often result in discomfort of the eyes, headaches, double or blurred vision, or fatigue. The excess effort expended in coordinating the eyes may interfere with the ability to make eye contact. This is one reason we see a high prevalence of ‘peripheral’ side viewing, flapping one’s hands in front of their eyes, or even pulling or pushing one’s lids.  

Accommodative, or focusing skills refer to one's ability to focus clearly on near objects as well as to sustain this focus for an extended period of time. Deficient accommodative skills may result in rapid fatigue, or difficulty in shifting between persons or objects near and far. 

 After analyzing data from 100 cases evaluated by our office, including verbal and nonverbal spectrum cases, 36 individuals demonstrated convergence insufficiency (a problem with the two eyes coming in and remaining focused up close); 6 individuals demonstrated convergence excess (the eyes staying in too long and having trouble focusing outward). 28 individuals demonstrated exotropia, which is an eye turn outward and 13 showed esotropia, an eye turning inward). The remaining 17 received no diagnosis. So to summarize, 83 of the 100 individuals examined were found to have a visual anomaly inhibiting proper development or learning.

What are the signs? How can a parent suspect their child should have a vision examination?

Does this consider verbal and nonverbal populations?

Whether your child is verbal or has limited language there are many signs that could indicate a vision issue is warranted.  It could be something as simple as excessive blinking, squinting, or frequently closing one eye.  Or it could be something more complex.  For example, observations of peripheral viewing, also referred to as “side viewing” might be something a parent or teacher might notice. Peripheral viewing tendencies arise when misinformation of visual stimulus is present and can often be a mechanism to suppress double vision.  Or, there might be issues of balance and transport, such as postural warps, toe-walking, grazing of walls while walking and challenges with steps and stairs.  In our model, this is a delay in the question of “where am I in space?” Oral impulses, such as placement of hand and other objects in the mouth, are also common in spectrum individuals with visual and proprioceptive delays. 

 According to the American Optometric Association, all children should receive examinations at 6 months, 3 years and again before the first grade. This recommendation is urged even when children may appear asymptomatic. While we expect all children to receive thorough evaluations at these milestones, we especially warrant parents whose children are symptomatic or are nonverbal/have limited communication skills to follow this trajectory, since they are unable to communicate blurry or disordered vision to their caretakers.

What is involved in the examination process?  

At The Center for Visual Management, our examination is comprised of a few simple pre-tests if the child is able to undergo these tests. The doctor then splits the evaluations into two parts.  First, we attempt a comprehensive eye exam in a traditional exam room.  We discuss the child's history, and then attempt to check visual acuity, refractive status, eye turns or any muscular abnormalities, depth perception, binocularity, and eye health.  While child participation is ideal for collecting visual status information, it's not necessary for the doctor to determine certain aspects of the exam, such as eye turn or refractive status. There are other very successful ways of extrapolating this information. 

 Next, we will all move to a larger, more open area that is designed much like a room you might see at a physical or occupational therapy office.  There we complete a sensorimotor examination comprised of several activities.  The Kaplan Nonverbal Battery was designed by our center’s founder, Dr. Melvin Kaplan years ago, and requires pre-prism lens and post-prism lens responses to specific tasks of visual attention, posture and disposition.  By observing the child and allowing them to move through these tasks, simulating real-life day to day activities, we will be looking for increases in eye contact and conjugate eye movements, improved attention and interest in surroundings, more relaxed attention in visual-vestibular and visual-motor tasks, and any significant improvement in depth perception.  

Preparing your child for an appointment  

In preparing your child for an appointment with our office, we offer the following advice:

·        If your child is tactile defensive, we first suggest going to a dollar store and buying a cheap pair of children's sunglasses. Pop out the lenses and for a few minutes each day leading up to the appointment, try having your child practice wearing the glasses at home. By becoming better acclimated to the feel of the frame on their face, the evaluation process can sometimes go more smoothly in the office.

·        We also encourage you to share as much information about the doctors and our office as you can with your child. Explain to them that in addition to having their eyes checked, there will be other fun activities, involving televisions, balance boards, balloons, balls, slinky’s, puzzles, etc. Therapeutic glasses will be used to see if we can improve performance based tasks, like balancing on one foot or catching ball. Definitely let your child know that he or she will not be receiving any shots in our office! It is for the child's comfort that we also choose not to wear white coats in the office, and there is no noise or heavy fragrances in the office either.

 ·        A video tour of our facility is available on some of our social media pages, including Facebook and YouTube. Having a sense of our facility and how non-threatening it is also very helpful to children. You can find our CVM video tour here:

 ·        Most importantly, if you or your child have any specific concerns, please do not hesitate to contact our office. We make every attempt at accommodating each individual's needs.


An estimated 1 in 4 children

have a ​ vision problem that if left untreated

                   impacts their development, learning and/or                 behaviors 

  • One study found that even if a child failed a school vision screening, 50% of the parents were unaware of the failure two months after the screening

  • These disorders, if left untreated can have an economic impact, too. Nationally, an estimated $10 billion is spent annually 

The Fundamental Difference between Vision Screenings

and Comprehensive Eye Examinations

 Barbara Kotsamanidis-Burg, MSE

 I recently asked a close friend if she’d like to bring her four year old daughter into the office for an eye examination. “That’s okay” she said, “there’s an upcoming screening at her school.”  Her response nearly caused me to fall off my chair. After shaking my head in disbelief several times, I quickly came to realize that perhaps those of us in vision care must not be communicating the difference between vision screenings and comprehensive exams effectively. This inspired me to create our very first blog post.

A vision screening, frequently performed by pediatricians or school nurses usually includes the use of the big “E,” also known as the Snellen chart. How well a child can interpret this chart at a twenty foot distance then determines whether that child will be referred to a vision care provider for further examination. In some cases, a prescription for clearer eyesight (20/20 vision) will be administered and the vision screening, at least to these children’s parents, will have been considered a success.

However,  these same vision screenings are usually

not exploring eye health, assessment of eye focusing,

eye teaming and eye movements, including

abnormalities that may exist in the muscles.

They more than likely are not examining

peripheral vision, depth perception or

color vision, either. Because children

are completely unaware that seeing

words jump around on a page, or even

seeing those words split into two is

abnormal, they frequently go on to live

with the disorder until either someone

makes them aware that there are

treatments to resolve their issues OR they

continue living with poor visual function and

not knowing any differently. 

Although the eyes are an extension of the brain (and quite literally the only part of the brain that we visibly see), visual issues are wildly undetected and I feel it is our responsibility to effectively communicate and advocate on behalf of those living with visual disturbances. Vision screenings are a good start, however, comprehensive examinations, performed by a licensed optometrist or ophthalmologist must become a yearly gold standard of care.

On behalf of The Center for Visual Management, the doctors and I look forward to periodically posting on our “CVM Visionary Blog.” Please feel free to share this and future posts with your child’s pediatricians, ancillary therapists or school administrators or educators—your willingness to share may very well save a child’s sight.

My Child Had a Formal Psychological/ Educational Evaluation… What Should I Do Next?   
Madison Lee

You may have read every parenting book, blog, or posts from your local mom’s boards for every difficulty your child might have, but chances are your child only represents a small portion of what is being presented to you.  With this being said, when your child undergoes any psychological or educational evaluation, whether it be in a school, clinic, or private practice setting it is your job to ask questions related to your child.

  Most importantly, ask questions beyond what the data or general “norms” suggest.  

I say this because although we psychologists are trained to look at how a child’s behaviors present throughout the testing and account for them along with their abilities and skills, visual processing and behavioral observations are often overlooked during these most informative times.  Unfortunately, this does not happen on any negligent behalf of the psychologist, but more so because psychologists are not trained to detect visual processing issues beyond what the scores present. 

It is usually the parent who asks the psychologist “have you ever heard of vision therapy?" and "do you think my child needs this?” 
Visual processing difficulties can present in many ways across testing.  If you are a parent who has had your child tested before or is going to in the future you will likely hear/see the abbreviated terms of the testing materials used.  Some of the most frequently used tests are the WISC-V, WPPSI, WJ-IV, Bender-Gestalt II, GORT-5, GSRT, and the WIAT-III which assess cognitive abilities, visual motor integration, and academic achievement (reading, writing and math).  Across each of these measures your child may present with below average scores--- your provider will spend some time discussing this and if your child presents as average it is likely he/she will move on during any type of feedback unless you stop them.  Nonetheless, you should inquire about what the processes of your child’s work looked like.  By asking these questions you will know whether or not you should turn to vision therapy or consult further about your child’s visual processing.

Here are some suggestions I would recommend asking the evaluator:

During testing did my child...

Work closely to the page

Have difficulty copying items (i.e. reversals or exerting excessive energy)

Seem to slow down or spend more time re-reading parts of larger passages

Write words that exhibited letter reversals

Fatigue during reading tasks

Exhibit lip biting or excessive mouth movements during reading

Express complaints when approaching reading/writing tasks

Skip lines when reading aloud

Read the words accurately, but exhibit minimal comprehension

Write sentences with poor spacing or ‘floating’ letters off the line

Not attend to the mathematical sign changes

Exhibit minimal organization across tasks, both spatially and/or verbally

Have difficulty following multi-step directions

Have difficulty self-monitoring during tasks

Have a short attention span for particular tasks

Exhibit dysfluency across timed tasks

These questions are important to ask because they are all signs of visually related difficulties that can be causing your child to exert additional effort or strain of the eyes, which often go unrecognized.  Regardless of your child’s performance on these measures, it is by understanding his/her behaviors throughout the testing that will enable you to detect visual processing difficulties and a need for vision therapy.  Remember, you are your child’s best expert witness!